中美关于在21世纪20年代强化气候行动的格拉斯哥联合宣言

2021年11月11日
文章来源:中国新闻网
U.S.-China Joint Glasgow Declaration on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s 中美…

U.S.-China Joint Glasgow Declaration on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s

中美关于在21世纪20年代强化气候行动的格拉斯哥联合宣言

November 11, 2021

2021年11月11日

1. The United States and China recall their Joint Statement Addressing the Climate Crisis of April 17th, 2021. They are committed to its effective implementation and appreciate the intensive work that has taken place to date and the value of continued discussion.

一、中美回顾2021年4月17日发表的《中美应对气候危机联合声明》。两国致力于该声明的有效实施,赞赏迄今为止开展的深度工作和持续讨论的意义。

2. The United States and China, alarmed by reports including the Working Group I Contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report released on August 9th, 2021, further recognize the seriousness and urgency of the climate crisis. They are committed to tackling it through their respective accelerated actions in the critical decade of the 2020s, as well as through cooperation in multilateral processes, including the UNFCCC process, to avoid catastrophic impacts.

二、中美在2021年8月9日发布的政府间气候变化专门委员会第六次评估报告第一工作组报告等的警示下,进一步认识到气候危机的严峻性和紧迫性。两国承诺通过各自在21世纪20年代关键十年采取加速行动,并在包括《联合国气候变化框架公约》在内的多边进程中开展合作来应对气候危机,以避免灾难性影响。

3. The United States and China recall their firm commitment to work together and with other Parties to strengthen implementation of the Paris Agreement. The two sides also recall the Agreement’s aim in accordance with Article 2 to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 degrees C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees C. In that regard, they are committed to pursuing such efforts, including by taking enhanced climate actions that raise ambition in the 2020s in the context of the Paris Agreement, with the aim of keeping the above temperature limit within reach and cooperating to identify and address related challenges and opportunities.

三、中美回顾两国坚持携手并与其他各方一道加强《巴黎协定》实施的承诺,同时回顾《巴黎协定》目的是根据协定第二条将全球平均气温升幅控制在低于2℃之内,并努力限制在1.5℃之内。为此,双方承诺做出努力,包括在《巴黎协定》框架下在21世纪20年代采取提高力度的强化气候行动,以使上述温升限制目标可以实现,并合作识别和应对相关挑战与机遇。

4. Moving forward, the United States and China welcome the significant efforts being made around the world to address the climate crisis. They nevertheless recognize that there remains a significant gap between such efforts, including their aggregate effect, and those that need to be taken to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. The two sides stress the vital importance of closing that gap as soon as possible, particularly through stepped-up efforts. They declare their intention to work individually, jointly, and with other countries during this decisive decade, in accordance with different national circumstances, to strengthen and accelerate climate action and cooperation aimed at closing the gap, including accelerating the green and low-carbon transition and climate technology innovation.

四、走向未来,中美欢迎世界范围为应对气候危机做出的重大努力。但也认识到,这些努力及其总体效果与为实现《巴黎协定》目标所需努力之间仍存在显著差距。双方强调,尽快弥补这一差距至关重要,特别是要通过提升的努力。两国宣布计划在此决定性的十年,根据不同国情,各自、携手并与其他国家一道加强并加速旨在缩小差距的气候行动与合作,包括加速绿色低碳转型和气候技术创新。

5. The two sides are intent on seizing this critical moment to engage in expanded individual and combined efforts to accelerate the transition to a global net zero economy.

五、双方计划抓住这一关键时刻,投身于扩大各自和共同努力,以加快向全球净零经济转型。

6. The two sides recall their intention to continue discussing, both on the road to COP 26 and beyond, concrete actions in the 2020s to reduce emissions aimed at keeping the Paris Agreement-aligned temperature limit within reach. With that clear purpose, and anticipating that particular forms of cooperation will have the effect of significantly accelerating emission reductions and limitations, including in the form of specific goals, targets, policies, and measures, the two sides intend to engage in the actions and cooperative activities set forth below.

六、双方回顾两国计划在《联合国气候变化框架公约》第二十六次缔约方会议前后,继续讨论21世纪20年代的具体减排行动,以确保《巴黎协定》相符的温升限制目标可以实现。秉承此清晰目的,并预期包括制定具体目标、指标、政策和措施等形式在内的特定合作形式将显著促进减限排,双方计划开展以下行动与合作。

7. The two sides intend to cooperate on:

七、双方计划在以下方面开展合作:

A. regulatory frameworks and environmental standards related to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in the 2020s;

(一)21世纪20年代减少温室气体排放相关法规框架与环境标准;

B. maximizing the societal benefits of the clean energy transition;

(二)将清洁能源转型的社会效益最大化;

C. policies to encourage decarbonization and electrification of end-use sectors;

(三)推动终端用户行业脱碳和电气化的鼓励性政策;

D. key areas related to the circular economy, such as green design and renewable resource utilization; and

(四)循环经济相关关键领域,如绿色设计和可再生资源利用;

E. deployment and application of technology such as CCUS and direct air capture.

(五)部署和应用技术,如碳捕集、利用、封存和直接空气捕集。

8. Recognizing specifically the significant role that emissions of methane play in increasing temperatures, both countries consider increased action to control and reduce such emissions to be a matter of necessity in the 2020s. To this end:

八、两国特别认识到,甲烷排放对于升温的显著影响,认为加大行动控制和减少甲烷排放是21世纪20年代的必要事项。为此:

A. The two countries intend to cooperate to enhance the measurement of methane emissions; to exchange information on their respective policies and programs for strengthening management and control of methane; and to foster joint research into methane emission reduction challenges and solutions.

(一)两国计划合作加强甲烷排放的测量;交流各自加强甲烷管控政策和计划的信息;并促进有关甲烷减排挑战和解决方案的联合研究。

B. The United States has announced the U.S. Methane Emissions Reduction Action Plan.

(二)美方已经宣布美国甲烷减排行动计划。

C. Taking into account the above cooperation, as appropriate, the two sides intend to do the following before COP 27:

(三)考虑到上述合作,双方将视情在《联合国气候变化框架公约》第二十七次缔约方会议前采取以下行动:

I. They intend to develop additional measures to enhance methane emission control, at both the national and sub-national levels.

1.双方计划在国家和次国家层面制定强化甲烷排放控制的额外措施。

II. In addition to its recently communicated NDC, China intends to develop a comprehensive and ambitious National Action Plan on methane, aiming to achieve a significant effect on methane emissions control and reductions in the 2020s.

2.中方计划在其近期通报的国家自主贡献之外,制定一份全面、有力度的甲烷国家行动计划,争取在21世纪20年代取得控制和减少甲烷排放的显著效果。

D. The United States and China intend to convene a meeting in the first half of 2022 to focus on the specifics of enhancing measurement and mitigation of methane, including through standards to reduce methane from the fossil and waste sectors, as well as incentives and programs to reduce methane from the agricultural sector.

(四)中美计划在2022年上半年共同召开会议,聚焦强化甲烷测量和减排具体事宜,包括通过标准减少来自化石能源和废弃物行业的甲烷排放,以及通过激励措施和项目减少农业甲烷排放。

9. In order to reduce CO2 emissions:

九、为减少二氧化碳排放:

A. The two countries intend to cooperate on:

(一)两国计划在以下方面开展合作:

I. Policies that support the effective integration of high shares of low-cost intermittent renewable energy;

1.支持有效整合高占比、低成本、间歇性可再生能源的政策;

II. Transmission policies that encourage efficient balancing of electricity supply and demand across broad geographies;

2.鼓励有效平衡跨越广阔地域电力供需的输电政策;

III. Distributed generation policies that encourage integration of solar, storage, and other clean power solutions closer to electricity users; and

3.鼓励整合太阳能、储能和其他更接近电力使用端的清洁能源解决方案的分布式发电政策;

IV. Energy efficiency policies and standards to reduce electricity waste.

4.减少电力浪费的能效政策和标准。

B. The United States has set a goal to reach 100% carbon pollution-free electricity by 2035.

(二)美国制定了到2035年100%实现零碳污染电力的目标。

C. China will phase down coal consumption during the 15th Five-Year Plan and make best efforts to accelerate this work.

(三)中国将在“十五五”时期逐步减少煤炭消费,并尽最大努力加快此项工作。

10. Recognizing that eliminating global illegal deforestation would contribute meaningfully to the effort to reach the Paris goals, the two countries welcome the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use. The two sides intend to engage collaboratively in support of eliminating global illegal deforestation through effectively enforcing their respective laws on banning illegal imports.

十、两国认识到,消除全球非法毁林将有助于实现巴黎目标,欢迎格拉斯哥领导人森林和土地利用宣言。双方计划通过有效执行各自关于禁止非法进口的法律,共同支持消除全球非法毁林。

11. The two sides recall their respective commitments regarding the elimination of support for unabated international thermal coal power generation.

十一、双方回顾各自关于终止对未加装减排设施的国际煤电支持的承诺。

12. With respect to COP 26, both countries support an ambitious, balanced, and inclusive outcome on mitigation, adaptation, and support. It must send a clear signal that the Parties to the Paris Agreement:

十二、关于《联合国气候变化框架公约》第二十六次缔约方会议,两国支持在减缓、适应和支持方面取得有力度、平衡、具有包容性的成果,须发出清晰的信号,即《巴黎协定》缔约方:

A. Are committed to tackling the climate crisis by strengthening implementation of the Paris Agreement, reflecting common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances;

(一)承诺通过加强《巴黎协定》的实施来应对气候危机,体现共同但有区别的责任和各自能力原则,考虑不同国情。

B. Recall the Paris Agreement’s aim to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 degrees C and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees C and are committed to pursuing such efforts, including by taking ambitious action during this critical decade to keep the above temperature limit within reach, including as necessary communicating or updating 2030 NDCs and long-term strategies;

(二)回顾《巴黎协定》目的在于将全球平均气温升幅控制在低于2℃之内,并努力限制在1.5℃之内,承诺做出努力,包括在这关键十年采取有力度的行动,以使上述温升限制目标可以实现,包括必要时通报或更新2030年国家自主贡献和长期战略。

C. Recognize the significance of adaptation in addressing the climate crisis, including further discussion on the global goal on adaptation and promoting its effective implementation, as well as the scaling up of financial and capacity-building support for adaptation in developing countries; and

(三)认识到适应对于应对气候危机的重要性,包括进一步讨论全球适应目标并促进其有效实施,以及扩大对发展中国家适应行动的资金和能力建设支持。

D. Resolve to ensure that their collective and individual efforts are informed by, inter alia, the best available science.

(四)决心保证其集体和各自努力参考了包括现有最佳科学等。

13. Both countries recognize the importance of the commitment made by developed countries to the goal of mobilizing jointly $100b per year by 2020 and annually through 2025 to address the needs of developing countries, in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, and stress the importance of meeting that goal as soon as possible.

十三、两国重视发达国家所承诺的,在有意义的减缓行动和实施透明度框架内,到2020年并持续到2025年每年集体动员1000亿美元的目标,以回应发展中国家需求,并强调尽快兑现该目标的重要性。

14. Both countries will work cooperatively to complete at COP 26 the implementing arrangements (“rulebook”) for Articles 6 and 13 of the Paris Agreement, as well as common time frames for NDCs.

十四、两国将在《联合国气候变化框架公约》第二十六次缔约方会议上合作完成《巴黎协定》第六条、第十三条等实施细则,以及国家自主贡献共同时间框架等问题。

15. Both countries intend to communicate 2035 NDCs in 2025.

十五、两国计划在2025年通报2035年国家自主贡献。

16. The two sides intend to establish a “Working Group on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s,” which will meet regularly to address the climate crisis and advance the multilateral process, focusing on enhancing concrete actions in this decade. This may include, inter alia, continued policy and technical exchanges, identification of programs and projects in areas of mutual interest, meetings of governmental and non-governmental experts, facilitating participation by local governments, enterprises, think tanks, academics, and other experts, exchanging updates on their respective national efforts, considering the need for additional efforts, and reviewing the implementation of the Joint Statement and this Joint Declaration.

十六、双方计划建立“21世纪20年代强化气候行动工作组”,该工作组将定期举行会议以应对气候危机并推动多边进程,聚焦在此十年强化具体行动。这可能包括继续开展政策和技术交流,识别双方感兴趣领域的计划和项目,举行政府间和非政府专家会议,促进地方政府、企业、智库、学者和其他专家的参与,交流各自国家努力的最新进展,考虑额外努力的需要,并评估联合声明和本联合宣言的实施情况。